Institute of Organic Chemistry of the NAS of Ukraine is one of the leading research institutions in the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Its foundation is connected with the scientific schools of outstanding Ukrainian chemists, such as Corresponding Member of the AS of the USSR S.M.Reformatskii in Kyiv University and Academician of the AS of the Ukr.SSR V.G.Shaposhnikov in Kyiv Polytechnical Institute. The Institute of Organic Chemistry of the NAS of Ukraine has passed through hard times of the World War II, post-war years of tireless work for reconstruction and creative formation of the last decades.
The scientists of the Institute made an important contribution to the world science. Investigations of our scientists in the field of color of organic compounds theory, mechanisms of organic reactions, chemistry of heterocyclic compounds, chemistry of phosphorus-, fluorine-, and sulfur-organic compounds, chemistry of biologically active compounds, supramolecular chemistry have deserved public recognition all over the world.
A.I.Kiprianov has discovered a phenomenon of chromophores reaction in complex organic dyes, theoretical grounds of this discovery allowed to build a modern mathematic model of conjugated linear systems and foresee the color of the compounds.
A conception of multi-center cyclic transient states by E.O.Shilov played an outstanding part in the development of the modern ideas about mechanisms of organic reactions.
Discovery of phosphaso-reactions by O.V.Kirsanov stimulated rapid development of new directions in chemistry of organo-phosphorus compounds.
The principle of super strong acids construction proposed by L.M.Yagupolskii opened a new page in fluorine organic chemistry.
The scientists of the Institute have elaborated a series of new organic materials with different functions, these materials are widely used in chemical industry and hydrometallurgy, agriculture, medicine and veterinary.
Several Institutes of chemical profile have been created on the basis of the scientific subdivisions of the Institute, they are: the Institute of High-Molecular Compounds Chemistry of the NAS of Ukraine, O.V.Bogatskii Physical-Chemical Institute of the NAS of Ukraine, Bio Petroleum Chemistry Institute of the NAS of Ukraine.
The State highly evaluated the achievements of the Institute’s scientists. Elaborations of Academician of the AS of the Ukr.SSR A.I.Kiprianov on creation of special films for cinema and photography have been awarded a State Premium of the USSR in 1942. Academician of the AS of the Ukr.SSR O.V.Kirsanov was awarded the Lenin Premium in 1974 for achievements in the field of phosphorus- and sulfur-organic chemistry. Many scientists of the Institute have been awarded orders, medals, State Premiums of the Ukraine, State Premiums of the USSR and the Council of Ministers of the USSR, Premiums named after outstanding Ukrainian scientists.
In May, 23, 1939 The Presidium of the AS of the Ukr.SSR made a decision to found the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology of the AS of the Ukr.SSR on the basis of the Institute of Chemical Technology of the AS of the Ukr.SSR and the Sector of Organic Chemistry of the Institute of Chemistry of the AS of the Ukr.SSR. This decision was made on the basis of the Decree of the People’s Commissars Council of the Ukr.SSr of May, 8, 1939. The structure of newly created Institute was as follows: the Department of Common Organic Synthesis headed by Academician of the AS of Ukr.SSR V.P.Yavorskii, the Department of Fuels headed by Academician of the AS of the Ukr.SSR M.I.Kuznetsov, the Department of High-Molecular Compounds headed by Academician of the AS of Ukr. SSR I.K.Matsurevich, the Department of Fibrous Substances and Dyes headed by Academician of the AS of the Ukr. SSR V.G.Shaposhnikov. Academician V.P.Yavorskii was appointed the Director of the Institute.
During the World War II the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology of the AS of the Ukr. SSR and the Institute of Chemistry of the AS of the Ukr.SSR evacuated to Ufa have been transformed in the Joint Institute of Chemistry of the AS of the Ukr. SSR. Corresponding Member of the AS of the Ukr. SSR A.I.Kiprianov was appointed the Director of the Joint Institute of Chemistry in October 1943, after Academician V.P.Yavorskii death. In October 1943 the Institute was moved to Moscow and in May 1944 to Kyiv.
After return of the Institute to Kyiv, A.I.Kiprianov conducted research on the theory of the organic compounds chromaticity, synthesis of cyanine dyes, creation of highly sensitive materials for films. The priority direction of A.I.Kiprianov scientific school was synthesis of polymethine dyes for laser technique. Polymethine dyes with the maximum absorption 1200-1300 nm have been created in the Institute for the first time in the world practice. The foundation of molecular luminescence of polymethine dyes has been laid, what allowed to obtain principally new information about the nature of intra- and inter-molecular reactions in the solutions and to find new fields for application of polymethines in informational technologies and electroluminescence.
In 1945 the Corresponding Member of the AS of the Ukr.SSR P.V.Golovin organized a Laboratory of Carbohydrates Chemistry and Technology. The laboratory worked on the creation of modern technologies and apparatus implementation for sugar production, purification of sugar juice, crystallization of sugar, obtaining of glycerin from the plants fructose.
In 1947 E.O.Shilov established a Laboratory of Organic Reactions Mechanisms. He was one of the pioneers in the doctrine of organic reactions mechanisms, he proposed and proved a series of fundamental rules about their passing. His principle of donor-acceptor reaction is one of the basic postulates in the modern school of organic reactions mechanisms. He was the first to propose an idea that formation of cyclic transient states facilitates chemical reactions proceeding.
Investigation of the mechanisms of bio-chemical reactions proceeding resulted in foundation of the Photosynthesis Laboratory in 1963, the laboratory was headed by a talented pupil of E.O.Shilov, Corresponding Member of the AS of the Ukr.SSR O.O.Yasnikov. He studied chemical reactions modeling separate dark and light stages of photosynthesis in green plants.
The course of the State on chemicalization and application of polymers to industry was the reason to create a Laboratory of High Molecular Compounds in 1951, the laboratory was headed by K.A.Kornev, the author of the nominative Kornev reaction. In 1958 the Institute of Polymers and Monomers Chemistry of the AS of the Ukr. SSR was founded on the base of this laboratory. Now it is a well-known Institute of High-Molecular Compounds Chemistry of the NAS of Ukraine.
In 1951 the Laboratory of Insecticides headed by O.V.Kirsanov – the pupil of Academician O.E. Chichibabin was created in the Institute. The main direction of the work of this laboratory was research in the field of phosphorus chemistry. In 1960 O.V.Kirsanov was appointed to the post of the Director of the Institute. He has been working on this position till 1983.
Academician of the AS of the Ukr. SSR O.V.Kirsanov is a founder of the scientific school of organo-phosphorus and organo-sulfur compounds chemistry in the Ukraine, the author of phosphazo-reaction named after him. Scientific activity of O.V.Kirsanov is an illustrative example of the integration of fundamental research and practice. In 1974 Olexander Vasyl’ovych was awarded a Lenin Prize in science and technique for his research in the field of organo-phosphorus compounds.
In the beginning of the 70-ies a rapid development of organo-element compounds chemistry started. 8 scientific subdivisions worked on this direction, they are : Organo-Phosphorus Compounds Chemistry Department, Organo-Element Isocyanates Chemistry Department, Organo-Fluorine Compounds Chemistry Department, Complex-Forming Organo-Phosphorus Compounds Department, Organo-Element Compounds Chemistry Department, Organo-Sulfur Compounds Chemistry Department, Phosphoranes Chemistry Department, Polyhaloido-Organic Chemistry Department.
Academicians of the Academy of science of Ukraine
A pupil of Kirsanov Corresponding Member of the As of the Ukr.SSR G.I.Derkach contributed a lot in the chemistry of phosphorus and silicon. He elaborated methods for oxidizing imination of tri-valence phosphorus compounds, proposed synthetic paths to acylizo(tio)cyanates of phosphorus acids, halogensilylisocyanates, etc.
Another talented pupil of O.V.Kirsanov Academician of the NAS of Ukraine V.P.Kukhar made an important contribution to the chemistry of organo-phosphorus compounds (trichlorophosphasopolychloroalkanes, six-member phosphorus-containing heterocycles) and polyhalogen-organic compounds.
Corresponding Member of the NAS of Ukraine Yu.G.Gololobov successfully worked in the filed of organo-phosphorus and organo-silyl compounds chemistry.
A.I.Kiprianov pupil L.M.Yagupolskii founded a scientific school on fluorine chemistry. Thanks to L.M.Yagupolskii school we observe a rapid evolution of a new scientific direction – chemistry of aromatic and heterocyclic compounds with fluorine-containing substituents. Investigations on the synthesis of cyanine dyes with fluorine-containing substituents in heterocyclic nuclei and with fluorine atoms and perfluoroalkyl groups in polymethyne chain are carried out intensively.
Academician of the NAS of Ukraine L.M.Markovskii has been the Director of the Institute since 1983 and in the course of 15 years. The papers of L.M.Markovskii and his pupils considerably contributed to the chemistry of sulfur, selenium and tellurium organic compounds; chemistry of fluorine organic compounds; chemistry of hypo- and hyper-coordinated phosphorus compounds; chemistry of stable radicals; chemistry of phosphorus-containing crown-ethers; supramolecular chemistry. A series of original fire retardants and thermo-stabilizers for polymeric materials have been elaborated and introduced into industry under his guidance, these elaborations found wide application in electro-technique and mining industry and also in space rocket technology. L.M.Markovskii was awarded the State Premium of Ukraine in science and technique for the cycle of works “Macrocyclic compounds: the synthesis, structure, properties”
In 1988 Academician of the NAS of Ukraine M.O.Lozinskii was appointed to the post of a Director of the Institute. An important fundamental and practical direction of M.O.Lozinskii work is the search for new structures and pharmacophoric groups which answer for the specific biological activity in the field of biologically active compounds of the natural and synthetic origin. A large cycle of works was devoted to the synthesis of new types of oxygen-, nitrogen, sulfur-containing 5- and 6-member condensed heterocyclic systems. M.O.Lozinskii elaborated the following medicinal substances: Amben, Bemithyl, Tomerzol, Ademol, Mebifon, Yakton.
The priority direction of the modern research in the Institute is supramolecular chemistry. The works in the field of supramolecular chemistry are conducted under guidance of the Corresponding Member of the NAS of Ukraine V.I.Kalchenko, these works are directed to the molecular design, synthesis and study of macrocyclic compounds (crown-ethers, calixarenes, thiacalixarenes) supramolecular interactions. Investigations resulted in creation of highly selective receptors for molecules and ions close in properties to natural ferments. The obtained compounds are prospective for practical application in various areas of science and technique.
As for today, 311 employees work in the Institute and its Pilot Plant, there are 23 Doctors of Science, 90 Candidates of Science, 102 engineers and specialists, 45 technicians among them. The scientists of the Institute have published more than 7 000 original scientific papers, 72 monographs, received more than 1 500 Patents and Author’s Certificates, prepared 59 Doctors of Science and 391 Candidates of Science.
A large quantity of the elaborations of the Institute have been introduced to medicine, veterinary, national economy. The State highly appreciated the achievements of the Institute’s scientists and awarded them with decorations and premiums. The staff is proud of the Institute’s history and its creators who founded and built the Institute, defended the Country during the war years, prepared scientific brainpower, strengthened economy of the State, enriched the world science